Accessibility MasterList

slider1

Information on access techniques and approaches for all known barriers and disability categories.

The Accessibility Masterlist is continually updated.  The Masterlist’s objective is to provide a rich resource of ideas and current knowledge on the different known approaches for enhancing access for those with disabilities, literacy issues, or effects of aging. We want to build off what exists and advance it, rather than duplicating it unnecessarily. Contribute to the MASTERLIST  

Key MasterList:
  • Blindness (B) 
  • Low Vision (L)
  • Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DOH)
  • Physical Disabilities (PHY)
  • Cognitive, Language, Learning Disabilities & Low Literacy (CLL)

 

Reading Aloud & Highlighting

Read entire text aloud – B, LV, CLL, D/HOH 

This feature involves a text-to-speech engine that reads the text on a website aloud.(more information text aloud)

 

Read words or blocks of text aloud when highlighted or clicked – LV, CLL

This approach reads words or blocks of text aloud when they are highlighted or clicked, giving people with control over the sections they would like to hear spoken aloud.(more information words or blocks of text aloud)

 

Highlight each word as it is read aloud – LV, CLL

This approach adds to other text-to-speech features by highlighting text as it is read aloud.(Read more Highlight each word)

 

Provide pronunciation help on-demand – CLL (Read more pronunciation help on-demand)

 

Allow the user to correct text-to-speech mispronunciations and/or retrieve pronunciation corrections from a central source – B, LV, CLL

This feature helps correct mispronunciations in text-to-speech programs. If a text-to-speech synthesizer mispronounces a word, this feature allows the user to easily correct the pronunciation. It also may support a central database of correct pronunciations, which can be updated often to stay up to date with a new vocabulary.(Read more  correct text-to-speech mispronunciations)

 

Use vocal characteristics to present visual formats – B, LV, CLL

This feature helps screen reader users perceive visual formats through auditory display. The screen reader may vary vocal characteristics – speech rate, pitch, or volume – in correspond to certain types of visual formats such as headlines or references. (Read more vocal characteristics to present visual formats)

Reorganizing, Simplifying, & Translating

 

VISUAL TRANSFORMATIONS

  • Adjust colors according to user settings – LV, CLL

Customizing colors of text, backgrounds, and images.(More information adjusting settingd)

  • Shift colors to be make text and images visible with certain types of color blindness- LV

This feature allows users to convert colored text and images so that colors are distinguishable to those with certain types of colorblindness.(More infromation shifting colors)

  • Adjust text font, including size and spacing (leading and kerning) – LV, CLL

Adjust the size and style of font on a page, along with the spacing between the letters, words, or between lines.(more information on adjusting fonts)

  • Adjust contrast or use a low contrast modeLV, CLL (More information on adjusting contrast)

  • Adjust magnification – LV, CLL

This feature includes the enlargement (magnification) of text, pictures, and/or multimedia on the display. (More information on magnification)

  • Use a customized, alternate style sheet (CSS) – LV, CLL

This style sheet may adjust things like font size and style, layout, colors, images, etc. (More information customized css)

  • Use or provide special fonts to facilitate reading by people with Dyslexia – LV, CLL

This feature involves the use of font types specially designed for people with dyslexia.(More information dyslexia and fonts)

 

REORGANIZATIONS

  • Reformat displayed text to facilitate reading – LV, CLL (More information Reformat displayed text)

  • Reformat web page display with a balanced depth & breadth of menus – B, CLL, PHY

The goal of this feature is to strike a balance between depth and breadth, by breaking menus up into pieces that are an acceptable depth and breadth for all users. (More info Reformat web page)

  • Create skip links (“skip to main content”, etc) – B, PHY

Skip links are links to different parts of a document, so that someone using a screen reader does not need to listen to all of the text to get to the desired content.(More info Create skip links)

  • Group links according to context – B, CLL, PHY

A website that is well-designed will already have links grouped according to similar content and subject-matter. However, some websites may have links scattered throughout the page, or may mix together links about very different topics.(More info Group links according to context)

  • Create consistency among web pages, while maintaining distinguishable appearances of pages – B, LV, CLL

This feature would reformat webpages to behave in consistent ways (of controls, navigation, layout, labels, and icons), while maintaining their unique appearances.(More info Create consistency among web pages)

 

OTHER TRANSFORMATIONS

  • Prevent flashing to reduce risk of epileptic seizures and reduce distractions – LV, CLL

Flashing of certain colors, at certain frequencies, may trigger seizures in some people with photosensitive epilepsy.(More info Prevent flashing to reduce risk of epileptic seizures and reduce distractions)

  • Transform content to conform to accessibility standards – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH

This feature would automatically take any website, analyze its contents, and add any markup necessary to make it conform with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) and other standards.(More info Transform content to conform to accessibility standards)

  • Translate and format text for Braille display – B

This feature translates text into a format that can be easily displayed and read on a portable Braille display. (More info Translate and format text for Braille display)

  • Provide Alternate Simpler Web BrowserB, CLL (More info Provide Alternate Simpler Web Browser)

  • Translate from formats intended for visual presentation – CLL

This feature would convert presentation of electronic data solely in visual formats into electronic document formats which are readily accessible.(More info Translate from formats)

  • Provide summarized content generated automatically – B, LV, CLL(More info summarized content generated automatically)

  • Provide ability to pause, rewind, and replay multimedia – B, CLL

This feature would allow the user to pause, rewind, and repeat multimedia content (even if these operations are not expressly offered by the content provider).(More info pause, rewind, and replay multimedia)

  • Provide ability to extend or remove time limits on reading – B, LV, CLL, PHY

There are numerous places where this would be helpful, including text in animated images and forms that must be read and submitted in a certain amount of time.(MOre info extend or remove time limits on reading)

  • Provide ability to extend or remove time limits on completing an action (filling in a form, etc) – B, LV,CLL, PHY

These time limits are common for purchasing items such as concert or theater tickets, which are in high demand and are returned to be purchased by other users if a form is not completed within a short time limit.(More info extend or remove time limits on completing an action)

 

SIGN LANGUAGE TRANSLATION

  • Translate from sign language to text – D/HOH

This feature would translate from sign language to written text as a transcript or captioning of a sign language conversation.(More on Translate from sign language to text)

  • Translate from text to sign language – D/HOH

This feature would translate text to an automatically generated sign language video so that it could be most easily understood by people who are deaf.(More on Translate from text to sign language)

  • Provide real-time translation of speech to sign language for live feeds, streaming audio and multimedia content – D/HOH(More on Provide real-time translation of speech)

  • Retrieve existing sign language multimedia –D/HOH

Feature that retrieves for example a  link to an existing sign language version of a video.(More on Retrieve existing sign language multimedia)

 

TRANSLATION INTO A SIMPLER FORM OF SAME LANGUAGE

  • Translate text into a simpler language – CLL

This feature will translate complex websites into simpler language.(More on Translate text into a simpler language)

  • Retrieve and link to existing simpler language version- CLL

This feature would search for and retrieve simpler language alternative versions of multimedia.(More on Retrieve and link to existing simpler language version)

 

GRAPHIC TRANSLATIONS

  • Translate text to symbols – CLL

Many symbol-based languages have been developed to simplify reading for people with cognitive, language, and learning disabilities or literacy problems.(More on Translate text to symbols)

  • Translate text to pictures – CLL

This feature involves automatically translating text into pictures that convey the same meaning as the text.(More on Translate text to pictures)

  • Convert emoticons to icons and set an alternate text label – B, CLL

Emoticons, such as :) or :(  , are often misinterpreted by screen reading software.(More on Convert emoticons to icons and set an alternate text label)

Supplementing Page Content

Most of the following can be done either by an automated tool or by collaborative/third party markup.

 

WORD LEVEL ENHANCEMENTS

  • Retrieve a definition for any selected word from a glossary/online resource – CLL

These definitions may be retrieved from a local/personal glossary, a dictionary, or a collaborative knowledge base (such as Wikipedia). (More on retrieving a definition for any selected word from a glossary/online resource)

  • Retrieve a definition for a selected idiom from an online resource – CLL (More on retrieving a definition for a selected idiom from an online resource)

  • Retrieve a definition for a selected abbreviation, acronym, or technical term from an online resource –CLL (More on retrieving a definition for a selected abbreviation, acronym, or technical term from an online resource)

  • Retrieve a definition for foreign language phrases – CLL (More on retrieving a definition for foreign language phrases)

 

PAGE & SITE LEVEL ENHANCEMENTS

  • Support collaborative third party markup – B, LV, PHY, CLL, D/HOH

Scripts and other techniques can be used to allow third parties to be able to enhance the accessibility of Web sites for people with different disabilities.(More on Support collaborative third party markup)

  • Provide descriptions of links – B, CLL

This feature should provide descriptions of links by analyzing their context on the page (for example, a link that reads as “here” may be expanded to include the text before and read “Visit our online shop here”).(More on Provide descriptions of links)

  • Generate site maps – B, CLL

Some users may prefer to navigate websites directly from their full site maps, which display all of the links and pages within the website.(More on Generate site maps)

  • Display breadcrumbs – B, CLL

This feature would automatically create and display breadcrumbs – a list of previously visited pages and the path to the current page.(More on displaying Breadcrumbs)

 

INTEGRATED HELP & REMINDERS

  • Provide cues and prompts to aid browsing – CLL

In a simple case, it may provide clear links to a home page, favorites, and the previous page.(More on Provide cues and prompts to aid browsing)

  • Provide contextual help – CLL

Good, contextual help may mean the difference between completing a task and giving up for many users.(More on Provide contextual help)

  • Offer real-time assistance – CLL

This feature would give the ability to connect to real-time, human assistance if needed.(More on Offer real-time assistance)

 

VISUAL EQUIVALENTS FOR AUDIO

  • Generate or retrieve a text alternative for audio/multimedia content – D/HOH(More on Generate or retrieve a text alternative for audio/multimedia content)

  • Provide visual alerts for system sounds – D/HOH

This feature provides visual alerts, such as pop ups or warning messages, for system sounds and error messages.(More on Provide visual alerts for system sounds)

  • Interactive transcript – D/HOH

This feature displays underlined or highlighted matching words in the transcript as the user hears the words being spoken, and allows the user to select a line to jump to the excerpt from the video corresponding to the text.(More on Interactive transcript)

 

IMAGE DESCRIPTIONS

  • Generate or retrieve text descriptions/tags for poorly labeled images – B, LV (More on Generate or retrieve text descriptions/tags for poorly labeled images)

  • Sonify videos or images to provide “synthetic vision” using audio – B

This experimental feature would provide “synthetic vision” using audio, by processing an image or video into an audio equivalent – with brightness represented by loudness, height by pitch, etc.(More on sonifying videos)

Audio Enhancement

Automatically do AND/OR give the user the ability to.

 

Reduce/eliminate background noise –D/HOH, CLL

This feature can be used to reduce background noise in audio/multimedia clips, either automatically or at the user’s request. (More information Reduce/eliminate background noise)

 

Adjust pace of speech/audio-D/HOH, CLL

This feature allows the user to adjust the speed up or slow down the pace of speech, audio, and multimedia. (More information Adjust pace of speech/audio)

 

Adjust volume and pitch-D/HOH, CLL (More information Adjust volume and pitch)

Adjustable or Alternate Input Devices

Automatically adjust or allow the user to adjust input settings.

 

KEYBOARD SETTINGS

  • Delay time before repeat (RepeatKeys)- PHY

This feature allows the user to adjust the delay time/repeat rate – this is how quickly letters repeat if the user is holding down a key. (More information Delay time before repeat (RepeatKeys))

  • Debounce time (BounceKeys) – PHY

This feature allows the debounce rate to be adjusted(“Bounce Keys”). This setting can ignore rapid, repeated keypresses of the same key by waiting a certain amount of time after each keystroke before accepting another keystroke.(More information Debounce time (BounceKeys))

  • Ignore short key presses (Delay time before key acceptance – SlowKeys)- PHY

This feature ignores any keystrokes that aren’t held down for a certain period of time.(More information Ignore short key presses)

  • Keep modifier keys active until another key is pressed (StickyKeys)- PHY

This feature allows the user to press a modifier key, such as Shift, Ctrl, or Alt, and have it remain active until another key is pressed. This eliminates the need for simultaneous key presses.(More information Keep modifier keys active until another key is pressed)

 

ALTERNATE TEXT ENTRY METHODS

  • Keyboard input – B, PHY

Make all functionality available via the keyboard (More information keyboard input)

  • Voice input – B, PHY, CLL

Make all functionality available via voice control (More information Voice input)

  • Virtual / On-screen keyboard (used with a pointer) – PHY, CLL

Some users with physical disabilities may find it easier to use only the mouse or a similar pointing device instead of a traditional keyboard. (More information Virtual / On-screen keyboard)

  • Make all functionality available with a limited number of input switches or a reduced keypad- PHY

Some people with physical disabilities might find it easier to use a limited keypad or single switch than to use a traditional keyboard and mouse.(More information Make all functionality available)

  • Accept Morse code inputs from mouse or other input device – PHY (More information Accept Morse code i)

  • Accept symbol-based input – PHY, CLL

For some users with cognitive disabilities or who are learning a new language, it is much easier to understand concepts that are displayed in images rather than text. An on-screen communication aid can allow input by clicking on images rather than letters.(More information Accept symbol-based input)

  • Allow input by Gesture with any body part(s) (hand, facial, posture, etc.) – D/HOH, B (More information Allow input by Gesture)

 

MOUSE/POINTER SETTINGS

  • Mouse gain / cursor speed – PHY

This feature determines how far and how quickly the pointer travels on the screen compared to how far the mouse is moved. (More information Mouse gain / cursor speed)

  • Double-click speed – PHY

This feature speeds up or slows down the time allowed between clicks to make a double-click, or turn off the need for double-clicks altogether. (More information Double-click speed)

  • Dwell click – PHY

This feature allows users to click, double click, or access context menus by hovering over an object for a certain amount of time, without physically clicking the mouse button. (More information Dwell click)

  • Cursor size and trails – PHY

Users with low vision may benefit from a cursor that can grow or shrink to an easy-to-see size. (More information Cursor size and trails)

  • Show pointer location on key press – PHY

This feature emphasizes the location of the pointer with highlighting, flashing, circles, or other methods whenever the user presses a specific key. (More information Show pointer location on key press)

  • Highlight/drag without holding button – PHY

This feature allows users to click, highlight, and drag options without holding down the mouse button. (More information Highlight/drag without holding button)

  • Use mouse gestures to perform commands or enter text – PHY

This feature allows the user to use mouse gestures to perform commands or enter text. (More information mouse gestures to perform commands)

  • Anti-tremor mouse filtering – PHY

This feature filters out accidental mouse movements and clicks that may result from tremors or poor motor control. (More information Anti-tremor mouse filtering)

 

ALTERNATE POINTING METHODS

  • Support head, any body part -tracking input – PHY

For users with physical disabilities, one solution to replace the traditional mouse may be to track head or other body part movements. (More information head, any body part -tracking input)

  • Support joystick-to-mouse input – PHY

This feature allows the joystick to be used in the same way as a mouse for navigation and pointing. (More information joystick-to-mouse input)

  • Support eye-tracking input – PHY

This feature replaces the traditional mouse may be to track eye movements. (More information eye-tracking input)

  • Keyboard control of mouse pointer (MouseKeys) – PHY

This feature operates the on-screen pointer through the keyboard alone, usually by using the arrow keys or the number pad on the keyboard. (More information MouseKeys)

 

ALTERNATE COMMAND

  • Allow control by gesture – PHY, B, CLL (More information control by gesture)

  • Command line interfaces – B (More information Command line interfaces)

 

AUTOMATION OF COMMON TASKS

  • Provide customizable hotkeys that perform actions with fewer keypresses – PHY, CLL

Tools like macros and keyboard shortcuts enable the user to perform multiple actions with a single click or key press. A series of actions can be recorded once, then played back whenever necessary. (More information customizable hotkeys)

  • Provide Macros that re-play a set of pre-recorded actions with a single keypress – PHY, CLL

Tools like macros enable the user to perform multiple actions with a single click or key press. (More information Macros that re-play)

  • Provide customizable shortcuts to help users jump to the content they need – PHY, CLL

This feature would provide customizable shortcuts for webpages that allow users to jump to the content that they need. (More information customizable shortcuts)

Facilitating Written Communication

 

Automatically check spelling and grammar – CLL (More information Automatically check spelling and grammar)

 

Assist with homophones – CLL

E.g. intelligently choose between “their,” “there,” and “they’re” given the context (More information Assist with homophones)

 

Automatically predict/complete words and phrases – CLL (More information Automatically predict/complete words)

 

Read letters and words aloud as they are typed – B, LV, CLL (More information Read letters and words aloud)

Error Prevention & Recovery

 

GENERAL ERROR PREVENTION & RECOVERY

  • Help minimize errors – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH (More information Help minimize errors)

  • Provide general strategies and contextual aid to safely recover from errors – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH (More information aid to safely recover)

 

SAFE INTERNET USAGE

  • Assist in judging credibility and authenticity of sites – CLL (More information Assist in judging credibility and authenticity of sites)

  • Maintain a list of trusted sites – CLL (More information Maintain a list of trusted sites)

Preference & Privacy Features

 

Automatically determine and adjust settings – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH (More information Automatically determine and adjust settings)

 

Choose preferred features and adjust settings with a user-friendly feature wizard – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH (More information Choose preferred features)

 

Provide settings and options that are easy to try out and modify  – B, LV, CLL, PHY, D/HOH

Setting options may cause confusion(More information Provide settings and options)

Special / General

 

VIRTUAL WORLDS & GAMING

  • Audio interpretation of visual content and actions – B, LV

    Items in the virtual world can can announce themselves and their positions to the user, and movements in the virtual world can be accurately represented with 3D sounds (for example, the audio footsteps of an avatar walking behind you). (More information Audio interpretation of visual content and actions)

  • Audio descriptions of objects in local area  –B, LV, CLL

    Allow users to limit the amount of data that is received at one time.(More information Audio descriptions of objects in local area)

  • Provide the ability to discover relationships between items – B, LV 

    In these cases, the system should automatically determine and describe as much information as possible about the item.(More information Provide the ability to discover relationships between items)

 

ACCESSIBLE AUTHENTICATION METHODS

  • Provide accessible CAPTCHAs to authenticate access to websites – B, LV, CLL (More information Provide accessible CAPTCHAs)

  • Enable secure access without a memorized password – CLL (More information Enable secure access without a memorized password)

 

REAL-TIME NAVIGATION

  • Provide GPS navigation/wayfinding features on mobile devices – B, LV, CLL  (More information Provide GPS navigation/wayfinding features on mobile devices)

 

CONTEXT

  • Using context to modify, adjust, tune any and all of the above – ALL (More information Using context to modify, adjust, tune any and all of the above)

Input, output, control, complexity, and support.